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Konferencja „Miki Wesołowska. In memoriam

Kategoria: Aktualności pracownicze, Aktualności Sekretariatu ds. studenckich, Aktualności Wydziału, Konferencje i spotkania naukowe

English version HERE

14 kwietnia 2024 roku odeszła Miki Wesołowska, doktorantka naszego Wydziału. W imieniu jej bliskich i współpracowników chcielibyśmy zaprosić Was na konferencję naukową poświęconą jej pamięci. Konferencja będzie dotyczyła sytuacji społeczności LGBT+, czyli sprawy, która była dla Miki szczególnie ważna.

Poniżej przedstawiamy plan konferencji. Konferencja odbędzie się w języku angielskim.

Miki Wesołowska. In memoriam
07.06.2024 r.
Wydział Psychologii, Aula


Konferencja transmitowana będzie również online na YouTube.

10.00: Otwarcie konferencji
Omówienie wyników badań na temat sytuacji osób LGBT+ w Polsce.
10.15: Sytuacja osób LGBT+ w Polsce – wyzwania dla polityki państwa.
Dyskusja z udziałem ministry Katarzyny Kotuli i ministra Adama Bodnara (dyskusja w języku polskim)
12.00: Przerwa kawowa
12.20: Społeczność LGBT+ w badaniach psychologicznych I
13.50: Przerwa obiadowa
15.15: Społeczność LGBT+ w badaniach psychologicznych II
16.45: Przerwa kawowa
17.00: Niedokończone badania Miki
18.00:  Zamknięcie konferencji

Wersja polska TUTAJ

Miki Wesołowska, a PhD student at our Faculty, passed away on 14 April 2024. On behalf of her relatives and colleagues, we would like to invite you to a scientific conference dedicated to her memory. The conference will focus on the situation of the LGBT+ community, an issue that was particularly important to Miki.

Below is the conference agenda. The conference will be held in English.

Miki Wesołowska. In memoriam
Date: 07.06.2024
Time: 10:00 AM – 6:00 PM
Location: Faculty of Psychology, Auditorium

The conference will also be streamed online on YouTube.

Presentation of research findings on the situation of LGBT+ individuals in Poland

10:30 AM: THE SITUATION OF LGBT+ INDIVIDUALS IN POLAND – challenges for state policy
Discussion with the participation of Minister Katarzyna Kotula and Minister Adam Bodnar (discussion in Polish)



Threat for women’s rights and attitudes towards transgender people
Agnieszka Łyś, Tomasz Oleksy, Wojciech Podsiadłowski, Anna Studzińska, Kamila Bargiel-Matusiewicz

Agnieszka Łyś, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Tomasz Oleksy, University of Warsaw
Wojciech Podsiadłowski, University of Warsaw
Anna Studzińska, ICAM Toulouse
Kamilla Bargiel- Matusiewicz, University of Warsaw

Transphobia in public discourse can be seen not only among overtly conservative people but also among people identifying their worldview as progressive, even feminist, by their opponents sometimes called “terfs” – trans-exclusionary radical feminists. In our experiment, we aimed to check whether this phenomenon can be explained by the displacement of aggression theory, which states that people are more inclined to endorse stereotypes and prejudices when the real threat is too abstract or too strong. Therefore, we decided to check whether information about a threat to women’s rights will lead to an increase in transphobia among women. A couple of days before the parliamentary elections on 15th October 2023, we conducted an experiment among 80 women – half of them obtained information about an increase in conservative worldview in Polish society and its implications for women’s rights, and another half obtained a text on a neutral topic, not related to women’s rights. Then, both groups filled in the questionnaires concerning stereotypes about transgender people and support for transgender people’s rights. The effect of the exposure to information about a threat to women’s rights was opposite to the expected one – the experimental group had a less stereotyped view of transgender people and more supportive attitudes toward transgender people’s rights. This effect was moderated by collective narcissism – it did not occur among participants with a high level of collective narcissism.

Towards understanding: navigating collaborations and conflicts between feminists and the advances in legal rights for trans people
Ángel del Fresno-Díaz, Danna Galván-Hernández, Lucía Estevan-Reina, Soledad de Lemus

Ángel del Fresno-Díaz, University of Gdańsk
Danna Galván-Hernández, University of Granada
Lucía Estevan-Reina, Jagiellonian University
Soledad de Lemus, University of Granada

Feminist and LGBTIQA+ movements have often collaborated to challenge the effects of heteropatriarchal mandates and advocate for more equitable rights and policies. However, ideological conflicts between these movements have recently been rekindled, especially after the increasing advance of laws guaranteeing the right of gender self-determination, which has led to the polarisation of these movements in Spain and other European countries. To understand the psychological mechanisms underlying collaboration or conflict between movements, it is crucial to combine mixed-method evidence. Through a reflexive thematic analysis, we report qualitative evidence from two focus groups (N = 12) of cis-heterosexual and cis-LBQ+ feminist women, exploring key themes such as the definition of feminism, conflicts over trans legislation within the feminist movement, intergroup collaboration and the role of allies. Quantitatively, two correlational studies (Study 1a = 317; Study 1b = 323), conducted prior to the passage of the Trans Law in Spain, yielded contradictory results regarding the association between feminist identity and support for trans rights. Extending these results, two experimental studies (Study 2 N = 415; Study 3 N = 405) exposed cis women to narratives of cooperation or conflict, testing their impact on reactive threat, zero-sum beliefs, and support for pro-trans or reactionary collective action. Our results highlight the importance of feminist identity in supporting pro-trans collective actions, while pointing to the negative consequences of endorsing zero-sum beliefs and reactive threat. We discuss the complexity of feminist perspectives and propose strategies for fostering inclusive cross-movement dialogues.

Ciswomen and Trans Rights: A Comparative Study of Motivational Factors in Spain and Poland
Danna Galván-Hernández, Soledad de Lemus, Paulina Górska, Ángel del Fresno-Díaz, Lucía Estevan-Reina

Danna Galván-Hernández, University of Granada
Soledad de Lemus, University of Granada
Paulina Górska, University of Warsaw
Ángel del Fresno-Díaz, University of Gdańsk
Lucía Estevan-Reina, Jagiellonian University

LGBTIQA+ and feminist movements are historical allies, yet their relationship has faced scrutiny by some feminist women in Spain following new legislation for trans rights (Ley 04/2023). These self-identified gender-critical feminists fear potential repercussions for ciswomen, such as changes in legal ‘sex’ without medical prerequisites. To explore this dynamic, we conducted two correlational studies with general population samples of ciswomen (N Spain = 269, N Poland = 287) in two distinct socio-political contexts. In Spain, the feminist movement is widely supported, and trans rights are reinforced by recent comprehensive legislation. Conversely, in Poland, where even gay marriage remains illegal, the feminist movement, invigorated by the Strajk Kobiet protests, is gaining momentum despite the ruling party’s conservative, anti-LGBTIQA+ policies. Our studies aimed to compare the underlying motivations of ciswomen in these contrasting environments. We hypothesized that due to the lack of civil rights in Poland, feminists there might be more inclined to support trans people in their struggle, unlike in Spain where recent legal changes have sparked tensions among some feminists. Our findings revealed that in both countries, paternalistic motivations drive ciswomen to engage in collective actions for trans rights. However, in Poland, egalitarian motivations also led to questioning their own privileges, a pattern not observed in Spain. These results suggest that the socio-political context significantly influences feminist support for trans rights, with implications for how feminist movements might navigate internal and external challenges in their advocacy efforts.

Language choices of non-binary people - context, meaning, and consequences Weronika Tkaczyk, Karolina Hansen, Aleksandra Świderska

Weronika Tkaczyk, University of Warsaw
Karolina Hansen, University of Warsaw
Aleksandra Świderska, University of Warsaw

The annual report of the organisation ILGA-Europe on human rights of the LGBTI group in Europe and Central Asia once again ranked Poland last among the European Union countries. The situation of transgender people (represented by ‘T’ in the LGBTI acronym) is difficult. According to the authors of a report on the social situation of LGBTA people in Poland, nearly 69% of transgender people have experienced violence and more than 60% have symptoms of depression. The non-binary people, a subgroup of transgender people, face the additional challenge of not fitting into the binary understanding of gender. Another problem in the Polish context is a strongly gendered language. In 2020, I conducted a quantitative study on N = 275 non-binary participants. The results showed that 66% of them used some form of language indicating non-binary gender, while 43% of those who declared not to use any forms indicating non-binary gender revealed that the reason was the lack of forms in Polish that suit them. Non-binary participants were also most likely to avoid gendered expressions in their statements. In writing, graphic forms were very popular. Additional analyses identified areas that I decided to explore further in a qualitative study conducted in 2023. This study concerned the linguistic decisions of non-binary people, their context, and consequences. I conducted 11 in-depth interviews with non-binary people and carried out a multi-stage thematic analysis. The results showed that non-binary people consider gender as a product of culture, and thus do not see the point of the continued existence of this concept and the resulting gender roles and inequalities. They understand non-binary gender as not fitting into the available gender patterns and roles, or rejecting the concept of gender altogether. The interviewees also discussed the discovery of non-binary identities and the decisions involved, such as changing one’s name or pronouns. They addressed the most common beliefs and myths about different pronouns. Most importantly, I found that for non-binary people, language problems are something they are able to cope with, unlike the social reactions and the lack of tolerance they face. Respondents indicated little awareness of the existence of non-binary people and a lack of willingness to appropriately address and not discriminate against non binary people. A major lesson we as a society may take from the study is that not only children and young people, but also all adults, should be provided with reliable, science-based sex education.

How do we perceive nonbinary people? The influence of language, appearance, and voice
Dominik Puchała, Karolina Hansen

Dominik Puchała, University of Warsaw
Karolina Hansen, University of Warsaw, Leibniz Institute for the German Language

Nonbinary people use various linguistic forms to express their identity. Therefore, so far, psychological research on perceptions of this minority has focused specifically on a particular language. However, in everyday contact with nonbinary individuals, people pay attention not only to their speech but also to their voice or appearance. To fill this gap, we will present the results of an online experiment (N = 242) that aimed to investigate perceptions of nonbinary people due to their language and external characteristics. To do this, we used pretested photos of faces and recordings of short speeches. Our study showed that only nonbinary people with a masculine voice were perceived worse and were less accepted than binary people. This effect did not occur for those with a feminine voice. Perceptions were mediated by the level of understanding of nonbinary people’s speech. The results of the study will be discussed in relation to their possible practical applications in developing strategies to combat discrimination against nonbinary people, particularly those with the male gender assigned at birth.



Comparing the Psychological mechanisms involved in LGBTQ+ activism and activism for other social issues
Katarzyna Jaśko

Katarzyna Jaśko, Jagiellonian University

The goal of my presentation is to examine selected psychological mechanisms involved in political activism across different social causes. Specifically, I will explore the motivational dynamics of political engagement, the role of social norms, and the perceptions of specific political actions. I will compare how these mechanisms operate in the context of LGBTQ+ activism with other types of activism, such as climate activism, women’s rights activism, and activism for refugees and migrants’ rights.

Inducing respect norms to promote tolerance towards homosexual rights in Poland
Lucía Estevan-Reina, Anna Potoczek, Dominika Gurbisz, Laura Schäfer, Oliver Christ, Marcin Bukowski

Lucía Estevan-Reina (Jagiellonian University)
Anna Potoczek (Jagiellonian University)
Dominika Gurbisz (Jagiellonian University)
Laura Schäfer (Fern University)
Oliver Christ (Fern University)
Marcin Bukowski (Jagiellonian University)

Promoting social norms based on equality and respect can be a powerful tool to address the polarization threatening our societies. This study aimed to develop an experimental norm manipulation to promote tolerance towards homosexual rights in Poland. Two manipulations were pre-tested using fictitious Facebook discussions. Across several studies (Pilot Study 1: n = 98; Study 1: n = 381; Pilot Study 2: n = 85; Study 2: n = 377), the manipulations consistently affected participants’ perceptions of descriptive and prescriptive norms in the Facebook posts and in Polish society. The moderation analyses revealed that the effect of our manipulation on tolerance appeared only among participants who endorsed fewer positive attitudes towards homosexuals (Pilot Study 1) or towards same-sex marriage (Study 2). This aligns with the conceptualization of tolerance as acceptance despite disapproval. We discuss the implications, limitations, and future directions of research on the promotion of inclusivity norms and tolerance.

The effects of homophobic hate speech on the well-being of LGBT+ people
Michał Bilewicz, Kamila Zochniak, Oliwia Lewicka, Zuzanna Wybrańska

Michał Bilewicz, University of Warsaw
Kamila Zochniak, University of Warsaw
Oliwia Lewicka, University of Warsaw
Zuzanna Wybrańska, University of Warsaw

Research on the consequences of derogatory language revealed that hate speech victims experience lower levels of quality of life, higher incidence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as more frequent suicide attempts. Most of this research used correlational studies in which participants reported their experiences of being exposed to hate speech. Such studies do not allow examination of the exact causal effects of hate speech exposure on well-being and are prone to be affected by numerous confounding variables. This talk presents two experimental studies, performed in Italy and Poland, showing that exposure to homophobic hate speech reduces well-being among LGBT+ people, particularly among those highly identified with the LGBT+ community. Study 1 showed that exposure to homophobic words increases negative mood among highly identifying LGBT+ people, but it does not influence the negative affect of loosely identifying participants. Study 2 showed that exposure to homophobic statements reduces general life satisfaction among highly identifying LGBT+ people, as opposed to low-identifiers.

Gender dysphoria and autistic traits
Konstancja Orzechowska

Konstancja Orzechowska, University of Warsaw

First part: research Multiple studies show that there is a link between gender dysphoria and autistic traits and between transgender identity and autistic traits. A number of theories explaining the relationship between the greater prevalence of transgender identity and greater severity of gender dysphoria and autism spectrum exist. Based on current research and literature, for the purpose of the PhD project, a theoretical model in which the ability to mentalize and resistance to social norms mediate the relationship between autistic traits and gender dysphoria is proposed. A CAWI study was conducted on a research panel of 1156 adults, where autistic traits turned out to significantly predict gender dysphoria and the indirect effect through mentalizing abilities was stronger compared to that through resistance to social norms. The results also suggested that gender dysphoria and autistic traits were correlated with both depression and anxiety symptoms. Exploring such a topic is important because people with transgender identity and people experiencing gender dysphoria, as well as those with autism spectrum, are at a higher risk of depression and anxiety disorders as compared to the general population. This is due to belonging to one of the marginalized populations (those with gender dysphoria/transgender identity and those with autism spectrum). Furthermore, when an individual belongs to both marginalized communities at the same time, the risk increases even more.

Second part: mental health guidelines for the co-occurrence of autism spectrum and gender dysphoria in adolescents The World Professional Association for Transgender Health published clinical guidelines that support transgender and gender-diverse people, but they do not include concrete guidelines for working with neurodivergent individuals. However, a study was conducted by Strang et al. (2016), developing initial clinical guidelines for co-occurring autism spectrum and GD or incongruence in adolescents. These guidelines include several areas: Assessment, Treatment, Social Areas, Medical Treatment, Medical Safety, Risk of Victimization/Safety, Young Adulthood, School and Employment, and Romantic Relationships. Expanding existing research is very important due to higher risk of mental health problems in individuals with gender dysphoria and autism spectrum. Increasing knowledge may potentially explain the relationship between transgender identity and autism spectrum which may be beneficial for planning psychological support.

Queer grief. Character of grief in LGBT+ individuals
Małgorzata Mróz

Małgorzata Mróz

The experience of grief is universal. Almost every person experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in their life. Depending on the research, from 7 to 20% of people experience complicated grief. LGBT+ people are at much greater risk of complicated grief and post-traumatic stress disorder related to grief. This is due to both a higher percentage of traumatic losses, i.e. losses resulting from suicide or acts of violence, as well as much lower social acceptance for public mourning and low availability of professional support. In my speech, I will discuss the specificity of queer grief in the Polish legal and social context, key risk factors for complicated grief and possible solutions to the problem of insufficient support for LGBT+ people in grief.



How can natural language processing inform our knowledge of collective action?
Miki Wesołowska, Karolina Hansen, Paulina Górska

Miki Wesołowska, University of Warsaw
Karolina Hansen, University of Warsaw, Leibniz Institute for German Language
Paulina Górska, University of Warsaw

The usage of Natural Language Processing (NLP) in social psychology has seen unprecedented development in recent years. One area that benefited from this advancement is collective action research. Through the NLP studies of online debates, researchers managed to demonstrate that protest behaviours have their linguistic markers and may be quite precisely predicted based on the content of social media posts. What does not seem to be fully exploited, however, is the NLP’s potential to test and extend collective action theories as well as overcome the limitations of conventional collective action research (e.g., low ecological validity). In our talk, we will present the results of a study analyzing the language used in 376,864 Facebook posts published during the 2020-2021 wave of protests against the abortion ban. By relating textual data from social media to data concerning actual protest events, we will try to establish the directionality of the association between language and protest behaviour.

Using virtual reality to study behavioural and psychological change at protest events
Paulina Górska, Tomasz Oleksy, Anna Wnuk, Maciej Górski, Miki Wesołowska, Danna Galván-Hernández

Paulina Górska, University of Warsaw
Tomasz Oleksy, University of Warsaw
Anna Wnuk, University of Warsaw
Maciej Górski, University of Warsaw
Miki Wesołowska, University of Warsaw
Danna Galván Hernández, University of Granada

Collective action research suffers from a range of methodological issues. Two of those are the limited possibility of conducting ecologically valid experiments and the scarcity of longitudinal data collected during actual, particularly violent, protest events. We propose that transferring collective action research to virtual reality (VR) addresses both of these issues. In this talk, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using VR to study protest behaviour. Next, we will present the results of a pilot study (N = 148) in which study participants attended a collective action event (i.e., the Equality March in Opole) through the means of a 360-degree video. As suggested by the analyses, attending a virtual protest may be particularly empowering for individuals showing low levels of life satisfaction before the event.

Mixed feelings. Explaining the decline in collective action for Ukrainian refugees through changes in group-based emotions
Paulina Górska, Maciej Górski, Maria Mirucka, Miki Wesołowska

Paulina Górska, University of Warsaw
Maciej Górski, University of Warsaw
Maria Mirucka, University of Warsaw
Miki Wesołowska, University of Warsaw

This study (N = 477) explored whether changes in group-based emotions over time can explain the gradual decline in third-party members’ collective actions supporting a disadvantaged outgroup. We categorized group-based emotions into three types: those directed at the bystander ingroup (e.g., pride and guilt), those aimed at the disadvantaged outgroup (e.g., empathy and anxiety), and those associated with an advantaged outgroup (e.g., anger and fear). The study focused on the collective actions of Poles (a not directly engaged third group) in support of Ukrainian refugees (a disadvantaged outgroup) fleeing from territories attacked by Russia (an advantaged outgroup) in February 2022. Data were collected in four waves between March 2022 and February 2023. The findings indicated that all group-based emotions, except guilt, diminished over time. Poles’ willingness to support Ukrainian refugees also declined. Importantly, the decrease in collective action was attributed to reduced empathy towards the outgroup and diminished pride toward the ingroup, rather than changes in other group-based emotions. These findings imply that the involvement of third-party members in supporting a disadvantaged outgroup is influenced by both outgroup- and ingroup-focused motivations.

GPT-4-Vision vs. Human: Who Identifies “Harmful” YouTube More Accurately?
Claire Wonjeong Jo, Miki Wesołowska, Magdalena Wojcieszak

Claire Wonjeong Jo, University of California, Davis
Miki Wesołowska, University of Warsaw
Magdalena Wojcieszak, University of California, Davis

This research investigates the performance of Large Language Models (LLMs), specifically OpenAI’s GPT-4-Vision, and human evaluators in identifying ‘harmful’ multimodal content in a dataset of 20,000 YouTube videos. We develop a comprehensive taxonomy for harmful YouTube content, encompassing six categories: information harms, addictive harms, hate and harassment harms, clickbait harms, sexual harms, and physical harms. The study compares the classification outputs from GPT-4-Vision, crowdworkers (MTurkers), and domain experts, highlighting their unique strengths and limitations in the subjective and context-dependent nature of harmful content. We expect to offer two significant contributions. First, by providing a systematically scoped harm taxonomy, it can assist future industry or academic efforts in identifying harmful content with specific categories, eliminating the need to rely on arbitrary or inconsistent definitions. Second, we propose an alternative to human annotators that is more cost-effective and efficient, thereby protecting human evaluators from exposure to harmful content.